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Ladislav Kubeš/iStockBY: VANESSA CUTLER

(NEW YORK) -- In a groundbreaking study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers from Virginia Tech, Yale and Harvard may have found a reason why some people who get Lyme disease still have the crippling symptoms years after treatment with no sign of the disease still in their blood stream.

Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS) occurs in about 10% of people with Lyme disease following standard treatment with antibiotics, and is associated with symptoms like muscle aches, fatigue and neurological symptoms that appear to defy explanation, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

The medical community has been divided on whether or not Lyme disease symptoms can show up well after treatment ends. The diagnosis is controversial as there is often no detectable infection coexisting with the symptoms.

Dr. Brandon Jutras, an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry at Virginia Tech and lead author of the study said that "it might be time to look for other sources that could be contributing to the symptoms.”

“For patients who have documented cases of Lyme disease, it's reasonable to consider why they are having these kinds of unrelenting responses," he said.

The in this recent study, research suggests that inflammation from a specific particle shed by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria -- the bacteria that causes Lyme disease -- may provide an explanation for these cases.

Jutras and his team took samples of joint fluid from a group of patients who had previously been treated with antibiotics for a confirmed Lyme infection and then had persistent Lyme arthritis -- tightening of the joints -- which is one of the most common ways the long term symptoms shows up.

Researchers found that these people had a specific kind of inflammation from a certain particle shed by Borrelia, though none of them had any evidence of active infection in the blood or in the joint. To confirm their suspicions, they looked for the same kind of inflammation in people who had other kinds of arthritis, but were unable to detect it. They also injected the same particle into mice, which caused immediate arthritis within 96 hours.

“We think that the body’s response to the particle is going to be important for understanding post Lyme abnormalities” says Dr. Jutras.

For patients with PTLDS, additional IV antibiotic treatment after standard care has shown no additional benefit and may actually cause more harm than good, leading to unwanted side effects. There is no cure for PTLD, leading many to seek out alternative treatments that are not validated by the FDA, according to the Center for Disease Control.

But Dr. Jutras hopes that these findings will help people with PTLD.

“We are trying to figure out how to intervene to prevent the inflammation, to eradicate the particle causing the inflammation, and to find better screening tools,” he said.

Similarly, Dr. Robert Glatter, an emergency physician at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, who was not involved in the study, agrees that these are promising findings.

“We will need more trials, but these results offer a clear target for drug development as well as promise for this debilitating and chronic disease,” he said.

Lyme disease is spread by ticks, and has a high prevalence in the northeast and in specific areas in the Midwest, according to the CDC.

Vanessa Cutler, MD is a resident physician in Psychiatry at Rush University Medical Center working with the ABC News Medical Unit.

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Meg Casano(FAIRFIELD, Conn.) -- A young girl with a big idea has crushed a goal and will help hundreds of sick kids in the process.

Ella Casano, a 12-year-old from Fairfield, Conn., is the brains behind a genius idea: the Medi Teddy, a stuffed animal pouch that covers and conceals an IV bag. The back of the pouch is mesh, allowing for a doctor or nurse to see through and check on the fluid or medication a child is receiving. From the front, the child sees a friendly face and not the bag of medication, blood product or IV fluid being infused.

Casano originally hoped to raise $5,000 through a GoFundMe page, which would have allowed her to produce 500 Medi Teddys, the minimum number required by the manufacturer to do the job. In just over a week, Ella's page has raised more than $20,000.

Her mom, Meg Casano, told GMA, "We knew she had a great idea, but we never expected this level of response.

Ella is "excited" about the response to her invention, her mom said. "She's working very hard."

So is her mom.

"It's really been heartwarming to hear such supportive emails from all over the world," she said. "And it's motivating me, personally, to work as hard as I can to make this successful for Ella."

And now, she said, it turns out kids aren't the only ones who are excited about having a Medi Teddy.

"We want to continue to give Medi Teddys away to as many children as we can while also meeting the global demand that we've seen for Medi Teddy for children, adults, and even for pets." Casano said.

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Vidant Medical Center(NEW YORK) -- Paige Winter, 17, was rushed to the hospital after she was attacked by a shark in Atlantic Beach, N.C., on June 2. Her left leg was amputated at her thigh, and she lost two fingers.

Doctors who treated the teen at Vidant Medical Center describe how they assessed her injuries and why her positive outlook is so important to her recovery.

Love and Tourniquets: Dr. Eric Toschlog

On a picturesque afternoon at a pristine beach on the crystal coast of North Carolina, the life of a 17-year-old young woman was irrevocably changed. Paige Winter, standing with her siblings in waist-deep water, was attacked by a shark. The devastating injury to her left leg, which included severing of the major artery and vein supplying the leg, would likely take her life. But in the ensuing minutes, Paige received the heroism of love and a simple tourniquet.

Her father witnessed the attack, watching his daughter disappear beneath the surface in a swirl of bloody water. He dove into the water, found her, took her into his arms and lifted her out of the water. Still attached to her left leg was what he described as a "very big" shark. He proceeded to pummel the shark with his fists until it let go and then struggled to the beach with Paige in his arms, telling her that he loved her, bearing witness to the damage to her leg but unaware of the shark following close behind. On the beach, a bystander applied a tourniquet to her left thigh.

She was transported by Vidant EastCare air ambulance, during which a medical team assured proper tourniquet placement and began transfusing blood and plasma. Upon arrival to Vidant Medical Center, she was in hemorrhagic shock, yet alert, conversant and courageous. The trauma team activated the massive transfusion protocol and surveyed the damage.

I have seen dozens of mangled extremities in my career, but this injury, suffered by a 17-year-old simply having a beach day with her family, was heartbreaking. It never gets easier. The decision to amputate is never easy, but tragically there was no decision to be made. She underwent massive blood product resuscitation and amputation of her left leg at mid-thigh.

Simultaneously, our plastic surgeons began work on her hands. In subsequent days, Paige underwent multiple additional surgeries on her hands and has done extraordinarily well. She will be discharged to rehabilitation within the next week.

The worldwide death toll from shark attacks has been on the decline for decades. Reported fatalities secondary to unprovoked attacks now average six per year. There were only four unprovoked shark attack fatalities in 2018. This fact is most assuredly a testament to the evolution of trauma systems and care.

Paige's life was saved by the embedded education of a trauma system, Dr. Lenworth Jacobs and a loving father. A major recent advance in trauma care is the practice of "damage control" resuscitation. This practice hinges on the concept that exsanguinating hemorrhage requires immediate transfusion of blood products, to include not only red cells but also products that restore clotting, including plasma and platelets.

In addition, it is a new day in hemorrhage control in the United States. In response to the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, the "Stop the Bleed" campaign was launched.

Under the leadership of a trauma surgeon, Dr. Lenworth Jacobs Jr., and the American College of Surgeons, a massive educational campaign has been undertaken. The focus of "Stop the Bleed" is to train non-medical personnel to stop life-threatening hemorrhage. Integral to the training is early application of tourniquets. Our trauma center has trained over a thousand citizens in our trauma system, distributing hundreds of tourniquets.

I relish listening to Paige's father speak of the "chain of life," because this chain of life is the trauma system. Paige is with us today because of an aeromedical system that includes immediate access to blood, an EastCare crew enacting damage control resuscitation and the dedicated providers at a Level I Trauma Center. I am very proud of our system, but the trauma system did absolutely nothing heroic, it simply performed as it is designed.

Paige Winter is an extraordinary young woman. I hear recurring words to describe her: courageous, forgiving and resilient. Caring for such a special person under tragic circumstances takes an incredibly emotional toll on nurses and doctors. But that toll has been lessened significantly by Paige's character. She has lifted and inspired those around her. She is an environmentalist and loves the ocean. In painful irony, she is a vocal advocate for preservation of the organism that nearly ended her life.

The real heroes in this story are a loving father and mother, a volunteer on a beach and a truly amazing young woman. Paige was saved by a simple piece of any trauma system, a tourniquet. But in reality, she was saved by something vastly more powerful. Love prompts extraordinary action. In the blood and duress of trauma surgery, I am witness to this every day.

Paige is alive as a result of one of the strongest forces that I have encountered in 20 years as a trauma surgeon, surpassing any medical technology. She was saved by love, the love of a father for his daughter.

Dr. Eric Toschlog, chief of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Vidant Medical Center; professor of Surgery, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University

Mind over Body: Dr. Richard Zeri

We often hear the saying, "What does not kill you makes you stronger." The truth goes beyond that statement.

Every adverse event in each of our lives has the potential to make us stronger or beat us down. We all deal with adversity differently, some with a positive attitude, some with a more dim outlook. The difference between lingering after injury and recovering to lead a fruitful, productive life is a positive outlook. Any medical practitioner can attest to the fact that those patients who maintain a positive attitude and are proactive in their recovery do best and recover more rapidly.

Paige is without doubt in this category.

It is not uncommon for children and younger patients in general to cope better with injury. I treated a young girl about eight years ago for a severe leg injury after having been bitten by a shark. "Little Lucy" was amazingly upbeat as well in her approach to getting better, despite being 6 years old at the time.

Paige is 17 years old and as such, I expected a typical teenager's response, including angst and some despair. Not so. She has, from day one, maintained an amazingly positive attitude. In the two weeks that I have cared for her since her injury, I have not heard a negative word come from her lips. I have not heard her complain once, seen her frown or shown anger, fear or sadness.

Just looking at her is uplifting; from her light blue hair, which she colored just days before her injury, to the tie-dye t-shirts she wears and the slightly restrained and ever present smile on her face, you can't help but wonder, "Where does all this strength and positive vibe come from?"

She has suffered devastating injuries that would emotionally drain any one of us. She has lost her left leg above her knee; she has suffered functionally life-changing injuries to both her hands, has lost two of the fingers on her left hand and most of the soft tissue of her hand in addition to trauma to the bones, arteries, tendons and nerves on both hands. Reconstruction of her hands has required three operations, two of which required complex microsurgical reconstruction.

Counterintuitively, the loss of her leg is the least of her injuries long-term. Not to minimize any of her injuries, however, with our knowledge of modern prosthetics and rehabilitation, much of which we have gained from our experience in treating our wounded soldiers in the conflicts of the last few decades, she will be fitted and be walking again in a matter of weeks. Recovery from her hand injuries will take much longer, including months and months of therapy and hard work, and possibly more operations depending on the outcome. And the psychological toll will be immeasurable.

A long road to recovery lies ahead of Paige. Her loving family and her dad, who, with the instinctive reaction of a first responder, wrapped his hand around her thigh to save her life as she was bleeding in the first few minutes after her injury, will play a huge role in her recovery, helping her emotionally through the psychological impact of the event.

However, Paige herself, I know, will play the biggest role. Her gregarious attitude, her love for all life on earth, her smile in the face of adversity, her ability to joke about everything having to do with sharks, will propel her through the next few months and onto the next wonderful chapters in her life.

I find it befitting and smile myself at the fact that her favorite character is indeed Iron Man; one who after adversity rose up, recovered, rebuilt and worked to make the world a better place. Where does Paige get all this strength and positive vibe? I would like to think that we all have it within us, but Paige manages to corral it, bring it to the surface and let her mind take over in a unique, wonderfully uplifting manner.

Dr. Richard Zeri, chief of the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vidant Medical Center; associate professor and chief, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University.

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vadimguzhva/iStock(NEW YORK) -- When most couples tie the knot, they expect to buck the statistics of getting divorced.

But sometimes -- nearly half the time, according to some data -- couples who enter into wedded bliss end up separating.

The reasons for untying the knot are plentiful, from a lack of commitment, to complacency, to bad communication, to long-term incompatibility.

But some of the best relationship advice may come from those who have been down the aisle before.

Natalia Juarez, a breakup/divorce coach and dating strategist, is the owner and founder of Lovistics and helps men and women recover from breakups and get back into the modern dating world. She's seen a lot in her position, and here, she navigates advice for couples on how to prevent their relationships from ending in divorce -- and, if they do, how they can live "amicably divorced."

Below are her tips of what you and your partner should discuss before even thinking of saying "I do" -- and some to consider if your relationship does end in divorce:

1. Don't ignore the yellow or the red

Infatuation may cause us to overlook a partner's questionable behaviors. But Juarez warns not to become blind to warnings that divorced couples says were obvious signs of trouble.

First, recognize relationship "yellow" flags, which she says can potentially be fixed. These could include a lack of arguments, a partner speaking negatively or posting negative commentary about an ex on social media, or your parents not liking your significant other. Given time and talking things out, these areas can be worked through.

But red flags, she warns, are toxic behaviors that could continuously threaten the relationship, such as playing "the blame game," anger and commitment issues.

"Absolutely address red flags -- even yellow flags -- because you deserve to have a healthy, fulfilling relationship," she says. "Early prevention is the key to having and maintaining a healthy relationship. If it's not going to work now, it's most likely not going to work later."

2. Talk about the hard things life will throw at you

Your life when you get married could look very different a few years into the future.

For example, you could change jobs. You may decide you want children -- and your in-laws become a part of your child care. And your money situation could drastically change.

Discussing these subjects with your partner ahead of committing will help you discover if you're on the same page. And, Juarez says, it can help prepare you for these and other future challenges and train you and your partner to come up with win-win solutions whenever you face a disagreement.

"Couples need to commit to communicating in an effective way about anything and everything," she says. "If you think you're not a good communicator, guess what? A lot of people aren't. That's no excuse. However, the great news is that effective communication is a life-long skill that can be developed and it's like a muscle -- the more you use it, the stronger you get."

3. Seek couples counseling early and often

Juarez says couples should rethink the idea that counseling is a last resort for relationships before ultimately ending things with a divorce.

"The fact is that the majority of couples don't tend to seek help until they're in hot water," she says. "And in many cases, it can be very difficult to course correct once things are too far gone."

She says that all relationships, especially intimate ones, require essentials such as self-awareness, emotional intelligence and communication skills. Utilizing counseling as a space for learning those can help keep relationships strong and allow both parties to put in the work to keep theirs healthy.

4. Marry someone you could imagine being "amicably divorced" from

Could "amicably divorced" be the new conscious uncoupling?

While it may sound like an out-of-the-box idea, Juarez says being honest about divorce statistics could be an early litmus test for your relationship.

"In addition to the character of the person you are marrying, the circumstances of a potential divorce matter," she says. "For example, if you divorce someone to be with the person you've been having an affair with, you might see a very different side of your ex-spouse come out."

Make sure you trust and respect the person you're marrying, she adds.

"The ‘[marry your] best friend' aspect makes sense to me because friendship is based on trust, respect and compassion," Juarez says.

"Despite what a lot of people think, I believe it is absolutely possible to have an amicable divorce. That said, it's neither simple nor easy," she continues. "It can take a lot of time, as well as a lot of emotional work to get to a good place. However, if both parties are committed to having an amicable outcome, it is possible."

5. Recognize relationships are complex … and that they can change

Juarez notes an unlikely source as a potential road-map for your romantic relationship.
"I highly encourage people to treat their primary relationships the way they treat their careers," she says. "In the same way that we are encouraged to always be professionally developing, we should also be investing in our relationships skill set. Whether it's a book, a coach or therapist, there are a number of ways to skill-up in our relationships."

Juarez also advises answering the question of whether you and your significant other operate as true partners or adversaries in your relationship.

"In addition to having a strong mutual love, they need to trust and respect one another, be wholeheartedly committed to the relationship, effectively and frequently communicate, and they need to be realistic about whether or not they are compatible," she adds. "This includes their personalities, life goals, sexually, etc. I know that sounds like a lot, but it's what it takes to make a relationship not only last but be fulfilling."

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LittleCityLifestylePhotography/iStock(NEW YORK) -- Dog owners convinced that their pup could convey a range of expressions through their eyes now have scientific evidence to back it up.

Researchers have discovered a key factor that separates wolves from dogs, involving two specialized facial muscles that evolved after they were domesticated by humans, according to a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Monday.

Domestication "transformed" the anatomy of dogs' facial muscles so they could communicate with humans, according to the study. Dogs are able to raise the inner eyebrow intensely, while wolves are not, and behavioral data shows that dogs can also produce eyebrow movement significantly more often and with higher intensity than wolves can.

This movement resembles an expression humans produce when sad, "so its production in dogs may trigger a nurturing response," the study, which looked at both behavioral and anatomical data, states. Scientists hypothesize that the expressive eyebrows in dogs are the result of selection based on the preferences of humans.

The study found that facial muscles in domestic dogs and gray wolves are relatively uniform other than around the eye.

Humans domesticated dogs more than 33,000 years ago, and as a result, they are able to read and use human communication in ways that other animals cannot, researchers said. Dogs are more skillful in using human communicative cues, like pointing gestures or the direction of a gaze, than even chimpanzees, which are human's closest living relative.

Eye contact between humans and dogs are crucial for social interaction between the species, the study states, adding that dogs establish eye contact with humans when they cannot solve a problem on their own. Eye contact also helps dogs determine whether communication is relevant and directed at them, as dogs tend to ignore human pointing gestures when the human's eyes are not visible.

Dogs also seem to be motivated to establish eye contact with humans at an early age, which could be an indicator of the level of attachment between humans and dogs.

"Thus, mutual gaze between dogs and humans seems to be a hallmark of the unique relationship between both species during human cultural evolution," the study states.

The mutual gaze seems to trigger an increase in oxytocin, a hormone that plays a role in social bonding, in both species as well, according to the study.

This tendency likely evolved when early domesticated dogs expressed characteristics that elicited a caregiving response from humans, the study said.

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Elizabeth Kough(NEW YORK) -- Elizabeth Kough, a mom of four, said she hugs her newborn son, Benjamin, "a little tighter" because of the miraculous way he came into this world.

Kough, 39, is still also in shock that she has four children.

Nearly four years ago she had both of her fallopian tubes removed in a procedure known as a bilateral salpingectomy. The removal of the tubes, which allow eggs to travel from the ovaries to the uterus, is typically a nearly 100 percent effective form of contraception.

In addition to preventing pregnancy, removing one's fallopian tubes has also been shown in some studies to reduce the risk of certain types of ovarian cancer, an added benefit that appealed to Kough because she has a family risk of the disease.

"I also hit age 35 and they medically say at that age pregnancy becomes more high-risk," Kough told ABC News' Good Morning America. "I was also divorced and single and had three children, which is quite a blessing for a family but I thought that was probably enough."

Kough had the procedure done by her OB-GYN in Virginia, where she lived at the time.

Around three years later, Kough was living in Missouri, in a relationship and oddly, she thought, experiencing pregnancy symptoms.

"I had read that if I did become pregnant after this procedure there's a higher risk of an ectopic pregnancy, which can be dangerous," she said, referring to a pregnancy in which the fertilized egg attaches itself in a place other than inside the uterus. "I thought it wouldn't hurt to just take the test and I really didn't think it would be positive."

When the home pregnancy test rang positive, Kough was shocked and went immediately with her boyfriend to a local hospital, which also confirmed her pregnancy at first with a blood test and then an ultrasound.

"I said to the doctor, 'I need an ultrasound. I had a procedure and this is not supposed to happen,'" she recalled. "The doctor did an ultrasound and Benjamin was right where he was supposed to be."

Kough's doctors at Meritas Health in Kansas City, Missouri, were as surprised by her pregnancy as she was.

"I've delivered and participated in thousands of deliveries in the course of my 10-year career and this is the first of a case like this that I've seen," said Dr. Dawn Heizman, a board-certified OB-GYN at Meritas Health. "None of us have encountered this before."

Heizman did not treat Kough directly but was part of the team of doctors at Meritas Health who reviewed her case. The complete removal of Kough's fallopian tubes was confirmed by her medical records, including a pathology report, according to Heizman.

Doctors also confirmed that Kough did not get pregnant through in-vitro fertilization, typically the only way a woman who has had her fallopian tubes removed becomes pregnant.

"We know that eggs can travel in the abdominal cavity and get into the uterus," Heizman said. "In Elizabeth's case, it's so rare because she has no tube to pick the egg up."

The most likely theory for Kough's pregnancy is that an egg migrated to one of the cornu of the uterus, near where the fallopian tube would have been attached, and entered via a small fistula tract to end up as an intrauterine pregnancy.

"It's all in theory and you can't even prove it, but obviously something happened," she said. "An egg made it to the uterus and got fertilized."

Adding to Kough's medical miracle is that all of this happened when she was 38 years old, well past 35, the age at which doctors start to consider women as being of advanced maternal age, according to Heizman.

While doctors, including Heizman, dealt with the medical wonder of it all, Kough dealt with the emotions of an unexpected but ultimately very well-received pregnancy.

"It was mostly reconciling what I thought was going to happen [in my future] with what was happening," said Kough, whose older kids are ages 17, 11 and 9. "I really love my kids and I really love my boyfriend so after the initial shock and an understanding that my life was going to be very different, I was really, really happy."

Kough said she also realized how lucky she was, recalling, "After I first found out I was pregnant I bought so many lottery tickets because I thought, 'I'm so lucky.'"

Kough had a smooth, albeit high-risk pregnancy, and gave birth to Benjamin on March 14 at North Kansas City Hospital. He arrived via C-section as a healthy, 7-pound, 6-ounce baby.

"The doctor peeked around the curtain and said my [fallopian] tubes weren't there and confirmed again the [bilateral salpingectomy] surgery had been a success," Kough recalled. "She also said I need to use another form of birth control."

Heizman believes Kough's case is one that will go in medical literature. She has only found three other instances in medical data of pregnancies after double fallopian tube removals, and none of those pregnancies resulted in a healthy and viable baby.

"The fact that Elizabeth delivered a healthy boy with all of these very rare circumstances, it's like a miracle," Heizman said. "This was impressive."

And after such a dramatic entry into the world, Benjamin's life is now fairly normal, according to Kough, who is back at work while her boyfriend is a stay-at-home dad to Benjamin.

"I don't want to spoil him too much so I don't call him a miracle, but my youngest calls him my 'angel baby,'" she said. "When I look at him I feel really blessed to have him because I know the chances of him being here are just so slim."

"I hug him even tighter, I have to admit," Kough added.

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Hometown Food Company(NEW YORK) -- Thousands of cases of Pillsbury flour have been recalled because they may be contaminated with E. coli.

About 4,620 cases of 5-pound bags of Pillsbury Best Bread Flour were distributed to a limited number of stores in Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Virginia, according to a press release from Hometown Food Company, which owns the Pillsbury brand.

More than 4,000 cases with the UPC item code 0 5150020031 5, lot code 8 342 and use-by date of June 8, 2020 were affected, and more than 500 cases with UPC item code 0 5150020031 5, lot code 8 343 and use-by date of June 9, 2020 were involved.

 The flour was manufactured by ADM Milling Co. in Buffalo, New York. It is made from wheat, "which is a raw product that is minimally processed," according to the press release.

Products with other best-if-used-by dates and lots codes were not affected by the recall.

The company urged consumers to discard the product immediately or return it to the store they bought it from for a refund. Customers can also call (1-866-219-9333 to obtain a replacement coupon for the product.

There have been no reported illnesses associated with the product. The voluntary recall was made with the full knowledge of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, according to the company.

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monkeybusinessimages/iStock(NEW YORK) -- Why do people want to spend time in the great outdoors? Perhaps it's because spending time in nature actually makes you feel better, according to a new study published in Scientific Reports.

Researchers in the U.K. asked about 20,000 people how much time they had spent outdoors during the previous week, then gave them a survey about their overall health and wellbeing.

They found that people who had spent two hours during the week in nature were more likely to say they felt better about their health than those who stayed inside.

Survey respondents reported “good health or high well-being” after spending at least two hours in nature, even controlling for differences in gender, socioeconomic status and location.

Dr. Matthew White, senior lecturer in psychology applied to the health and environment at the University of Exeter Medical School, and the study’s lead author, told ABC news that most people know instinctively that being outdoors makes them feel better.

“[W]e see our findings as an important starting point for discussions around providing simple, evidence-based recommendations about the amount of time spent in natural settings that could result in meaningful promotion of health and well-being,” the researchers wrote.

They only asked respondents about the previous week, because it's a time period that most people are able to remember clearly. The people surveyed spent their time outdoors doing a variety of activities -- riding horses, playing with their children, exercising or just relaxing.

Dr. White’s survey did not ask people about exercise or physical activity done outdoors, which could be a contributing factor for a sense of well-being.

So if your mom always said, "Go take a walk outside, you'll feel better," she's was right!

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Gina Adams is pictured far right in this undated photo. (Wareologie)(NEW YORK) -- Gina Adams, a mother of two in Michigan, saw firsthand the toll that Parkinson's disease took on her stepfather, especially when he was unable to do everyday things like button his own shirt.

"He was a brilliant engineer and a guitar player, and when he could no longer button his own shirt, it was devastating for him," Adams told ABC News' Good Morning America. "I saw my stepdad with this whole closet of clothes he couldn't wear."

A few years later, when her children entered their teens, Adams went back to school to get her MBA. It was while she was there that she came up with a solution to the problem that her stepfather had been facing along with millions of other people who have dexterity issues that prevent them from getting dressed on their own.

Adams is the founder and CEO of Wareologie, a company that designs products for people with disabilities. The startup’s first product is Buttons 2 Button, magnetic adapters that can be attached to button-down shirts.

"My background is in the apparel industry, and I believe our clothes express ourselves and our identity," Adams said. "And it is so important for people to lead their lives with a sense of normalcy."

The adapters can be used on any traditional button-down shirt. One part goes over the shirt button and the other part on the buttonhole to turn shirts into magnetic closures.

Adams said she envisions people using the adapters to help with everything from multiple sclerosis and arthritis to recovery from hand surgery and Parkinson's, the disease that struck her stepfather.

One in four U.S. adults has a disability that impacts major life activities, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The fashion industry has become more inclusive in recent years with adaptive clothing designed specifically for people with disabilities, but Adams wanted to make sure her product was affordable too.

The adapters are sold in sets of 10 for $30.

"Life doesn’t have to be that hard, so if this is one thing we can do to help people, it keeps us going," said Adams, who has spent more than two years researching and raising capital.

Adams also went through a divorce while starting her business and has made her new venture a family affair with her kids. They helped her research hundreds of shirts and buttons as she figured out challenges like how to make the buttons machine washable and transferable, both of which they are.

"I am very fortunate to have found my life’s purpose," Adams said. "Despite the trials and tribulations of an entrepreneur, this company feels right. Helping people regain confidence, time and dignity is important."

Cheryl Angelelli, of Clinton Township, Michigan, has been in a wheelchair since a diving accident left her paralyzed at the age of 14. She said she was always "limited" when she would shop for shirts because she could not wear button-down shirts.

Angelelli, now an ambassador for Buttons 2 Button, said the product is as much a "psychological" boost as it is a fashionable one.

"When you have a disabling accident like I did, you lose so much of your confidence and self-esteem and independence, so you want anything you can do that gives it back," Angelelli said. "Aside from fashion, it gives a psychological benefit too."

"I can button my shirt faster now than when I had full use of my hands," she added.

Wareologie is currently taking pre-orders on the Buttons 2 Button adapters. Adams and her business partner, James Murtha, who has a spinal cord injury, are also working to expand the line of products to include things like jeans and clothes for kids.

Down the line, Adams said she has plans for a concierge service where people will be able to send their clothes to be retrofitted, adding, "We are on a mission to restore independence with fashionable and stylish products."

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Desiree Hamilton(SUMMERVILLE, S.C.) -- "Stay in the mix with a fruity fix" is a phrase these young entrepreneurs live by.

Armani, 13, and Amaya Jefferson, 12, founders of Mani & Maya's Fruity Treats, started their own business in Summerville, South Carolina, to raise money to help find a cure for sickle cell anemia, which affects their 1-year-old sister, Taylor.

Taylor was born with sickle beta thalassemia, a blood disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin.

"Seeing our sister getting hospitalized a lot, we wanted to help raise money for other people that have sickle, like Taylor, and help find a cure through sickle cell research," Armani told ABC News' Good Morning America.

To do so, the Jefferson sisters sell pink and strawberry lemonade with fresh fruit inside. These drinks come in 16-ounce, half-gallon and gallon-sized portions. They also offer a fruit boat -- an assortment of fruit such as strawberries, kiwis, pineapples, blueberries, blackberries and sometimes lemon, mixed with yogurt inside a pineapple -- and nutritious fruit smoothies with similar ingredients.

And you do not have to be in South Carolina to get these sips, as they can be shipped right to your door.

"We do next-day shipping. When we do ship, it comes in a styrofoam cooler box, and we include cold packs to keep it cold," said their mother, Desiree Hamilton.

These middle schoolers are not only excelling with their business. Both attend Gregg Middle School, where Armani's favorite subject is math and Amaya's is reading. Armani and Amaya were also selected to join the National Beta Club, an organization that supports rising leaders.

And they showcased their leadership skills in April during their first Kid Entrepreneurs Expo, giving children like themselves a chance to market their businesses. It was a sold-out event with 14 kid vendors and sponsors who were happy to help. With more than 300 attendees, guests were able to enjoy free food, face painting, a panel discussion from experts and even a live performance.

"Because of this event, we were able to donate $500 to Medical University of South Carolina Children's Hospital, which is where our little sister Taylor is seen for her blood disease," Armani said.

The girls sell their lemonade every weekend either in front of their home or their grandparents' home. And they've partnered with Nana's Seafood and Soul restaurant, located in downtown Charleston, which sells Mani & Maya's Fruity Treats that they deliver each week.

"We enjoy making our treats because we have a lot of sister-bonding time," Amaya told GMA.

Taylor is a strong little warrior and has not been hospitalized since February -- and was also the special guest at the Kid Entrepreneurs Expo.

"It makes me feel proud and it is good to help people in need and waking up knowing I am helping change the world," Amaya said.

Mani & Maya's Fruity Treats also celebrated its one-year anniversary this month. How did they celebrate? By continuing to serve lemonade for their little sister.

"Knowing that we are so young and knowing that we are doing something so great, it feels amazing. You do not see many kids at 12 and 13 making a difference like this," Armani added.

So far, the sisters have donated more than $800 and plan to keep working hard until a cure is found. Expanding their business by possibly starting a clothing line is also on their minds, as they plan to continue donating funds to MUSC Children's Health.

"This makes me feel really, really proud," their mother said. "They did it, and this is their business."

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Mizkan America, Inc.(NEW YORK) -- Mizkan America, Inc. has issued a voluntary recall for multiple flavors of its pasta sauces that may contain fragments of plastic.

There have been no reports of consumer injuries or complaints, the company announced in a press release over the weekend.

The affected sauces were produced between June 4 and 8.

The sauces listed should be discarded and not consumed. Consumers can call customer service at 800-328-7248 to receive a coupon for a replacement.

The following sauces have been recalled:

45-ounce jars of Chunky Tomato Garlic & Onion.

Cap code: JUN0620YU2

Best Use By Date: JUN0620YU2

66-ounce jars of Chunky Tomato Garlic & Onion

Cap code: JUN0520YU2

Best Use by Date: JUN0520YU2

66-ounce jars of Chunky Tomato Garlic & Onion

Cap code: JUN0620YU2

Best Use By Date: JUN0620YU2

66-ounce jars of Old World Style Traditional

Cap code: JUN0420YU2

Best Use By Date: JUN0420YU2

66-ounce jars of Old World Style Meat

Cap code: JUN0520YU2

Best Use By Date: JUN0520YU2

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Courtesy Warren Flood(DETROIT) -- For Warren Flood, having his son, Malcolm, changed the course of his life.

Prior to becoming a dad, Flood, who is 43, worked in consulting and described the business model as "trading hours for dollars."

"My friends told me, ‘Don’t worry about it. You have all the time in the world. They’re not even cool until they turn 2 or 3,’" he said.

But once Malcolm, who is now 23 months old, came into the picture, the "father genes kicked in right away," and Flood decided that he wanted to be as present as possible.

"It’s a cliché that kids change your life but they really do," said Flood, who now works as the corporate affairs manager for Microsoft in Detroit. "So, he broke my business model."

"I did not want to travel. I did not want to be away," he said. "I wanted to have that level of stability, and change our lifestyle."

The face of fatherhood has changed

There are roughly 75 million fathers in the U.S., and according to experts, the institution of fatherhood has never looked more different. Blended families are common, extended family members might share a household and there is a significant number of single dads as well -- about 1.8 million.

"When we think of the classic dad’s model, it tends to look very 1950s simple households," Lindsay Monte, a family demographer at the U.S. Census Bureau, said in a phone interview.

"In this data, we see much more diversity of households in terms of the men and the children with whom they live," she added.

Molly Martin, an associate professor of sociology and demography at Penn State University, says the idea of family that comes from the 1950s represented more of an anomaly than a long-term trend.

"While we kind of think of it as the good old days, it’s a really weird historical point in American family history," Martin said.

But while less traditional family models are no longer outside the norm, that can complicate daily life too.

It’s "more complicated in the sense that you may have children with more than one woman, you may not be co-residential with your children, and so making meaning and making those relationships work for everybody is more complicated," Martin said.

Parenting has changed, and with it, fatherhood has too

Rather than relying on their own parents for advice, there are now endless troves of data online, advice columns and parenting books that offer "best practices" to modern fathers.

One piece of advice that’s commonly offered? Eat dinner with your kids. Studies have shown that kids benefit from eating dinner with their parents.

According to Census data released earlier this week, about 75 percent of men who live with kids under 18 years of age eat dinner with the children 5 to 7 nights a week.

"Research has found that parents eating dinner with their children is associated with a range of benefits for children, including expanded vocabulary, fewer behavior problems, and lower likelihood of substance abuse among teenagers," Monte said in a news release from the Census Bureau.

And while all that advice can be helpful, it can also translate into pressure to be perfect.

"The overwhelming part, the part that I struggle with the most, is still trying to find that balance between providing a stable financial, financially successful life and household with the tradeoff of spending time away," Flood said.

But Flood said the feeling of being prepared as a father is elusive.

"It never feels as if you’re fully prepared, but had I known just how much fun and enjoyment the hard times and the good times, and just how fulfilling being a father was, I wouldn’t have waited as long as I did," he said.

"I think often times men feel the pressure or the need to have everything in life sorted out, you know the good job, the finances sorted out and all that, that we often put up false pressures on ourselves or false expectations that we think we need to meet before we’re fully prepared to be a parent," Flood said. "But I definitely wouldn’t have waited as long had I known what I know now."

More pressure, but more valued

Ronald Levant, the former president of the American Psychological Association and a professor emeritus at the University of Akron's department of psychology, said that the role of the dad has changed significantly over the years.

He said he has noticed a greater closeness with children in younger fathers.

Levant said this is apparent in the "intimacy of care," and said that children now see "their dads as someone they can talk to."

"What I am seeing is that this greater involvement and hands on parenting and greater emotional intimacy with their kids," he said.

Flood said, in his experience, it’s relatively easy these days to talk about being a father and he thinks today’s world is more accepting and open about fatherhood, which leads it to be seen in a more positive light.

Marc Taylor is the director for the federally funded program TRUE Dads, an organization that works with younger fathers who have young children.

"The one thing that is encouraging to me is that... people are understanding how valuable fathers are now," Taylor said.

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Courtesy DeLauren McKnight(DURHAM, N.C.) -- A woman from North Carolina has given the gift of life to the man who adopted her when she was an infant.

DeLauren McKnight chose to donate her kidney to her dad, Billy Houze, after tests revealed she was a match for the procedure.

"She told me, 'Daddy, you thought you were saving my life pulling me from foster care but in actuality, you were saving my life so I could save yours later,'" Houze, 64, told "Good Morning America." "I am extremely proud of her."

Houze, a pastor and father of five, said his kidneys began shutting down in 2016 after he underwent gall bladder surgery. Doctors informed him that he wouldn't live past five years if he didn't receive a kidney transplant.

"And then they told me I would be on the list and it would be seven years before I would possibly get a kidney," Houze said.

Houze's sons were tested but were not matches. But on Feb. 1, McKnight, whom Houze and his wife Karen adopted in 1992, learned that she was a match.

"I never thought I would be a match because I was adopted," McKnight told "GMA." "I got the call at work and I wanted him to be the first person that knew. I called and I said, 'Daddy, I have to tell you something. I'm a match.'"

She continued, "He said, 'What are you mad for?' I said, 'No, I'm a match!' He stopped talking and he was crying. I was shaking. It was overwhelming."

McKnight and Houze hope to have the surgery in the next few weeks. McKnight said she is thrilled to be saving her father's life.

"I call him my Superman," she said. "Without him and my mom, I wouldn't have known where I'd be. There's nothing in this world I wouldn't give him so he can enjoy life and be right there beside me."

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iStock/WoodysPhotos(NEW YORK) -- Thousands of U.S. counties, cities and villages filed for class action status in a massive, multi-district litigation against opioid manufacturers, distributors and pharmacies on Friday.

New York's Albany County and New Jersey's Bergen County, as well as Atlanta, Georgia; Baton Rouge, Louisiana and Phoenix are just a handful of the approximately 1,800 municipalities already involved in the massive litigation against central figures and companies responsible for the national opioid crisis.

The federal bundle of cases accuses opioid manufacturers, like Purdue Pharma and Johnson & Johnson, of aggressively marketing the drugs while misleading doctors and the public about how addictive they are.

They also accuse distributors, like McKesson, of moving huge quantities of the painkillers without alerting authorities, and accuse pharmacies like CVS Health and Walgreens of selling large amounts of the pills to patients.

Thousands of U.S. counties, cities and villages filed for class action status in a massive, multi-district litigation against opioid manufacturers, distributors and pharmacies on Friday.

New York's Albany County and New Jersey's Bergen County, as well as Atlanta, Georgia; Baton Rouge, Louisiana and Phoenix are just a handful of the approximately 1,800 municipalities already involved in the massive litigation against central figures and companies responsible for the national opioid crisis.

The federal bundle of cases accuses opioid manufacturers, like Purdue Pharma and Johnson & Johnson, of aggressively marketing the drugs while misleading doctors and the public about how addictive they are.

They also accuse distributors, like McKesson, of moving huge quantities of the painkillers without alerting authorities, and accuse pharmacies like CVS Health and Walgreens of selling large amounts of the pills to patients.

It could be a step to resolve the case, because companies often prefer to settle all potential suits through class action, according to Carroll.

In fact,the judge appointed to oversee the case, Judge Dan Aaron Polster of the North District of Ohio, has already preemptively urged both sides toward a settlement.

In a statement to ABC News, OxyContin maker Purdue Pharma said: "The company is committed to working with all parties toward a resolution that helps bring needed solutions to communities and states to address this public health crisis. We continue to work collaboratively within the MDL process outlined by Judge Polster."

Johnson & Johnson declined to comment on filing for class status.

McKesson, CVS Health and Walgreens did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

Hanly said there is no settlement amount attached to the class ruling but that a potential settlement in the case could be more than $100 billion.

"Sometimes defendants like to enter into class settlements because it offers more closure," Carroll said.

An average of 130 Americans die every day from an opioid overdose, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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iStock/CreativeNature_nl(NEW YORK) -- When you think about rabies, you might consider dogs or raccoons to be the first ones to pass the viral disease, but according to a new report, you’re more likely to get it from bats.

Rabies is a deadly virus that, up until 1960, had been spread mainly through domesticated animals like dogs. Once they began getting vaccinated for the disease, however, wild animals became the main rabies hosts, causing about one to three human cases each year in the United States — a drop from over 100 deaths a year in the early 1900s, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

“Reducing rabies in dogs is a remarkable achievement of the U.S. public health system, but with this deadly disease still present in thousands of wild animals, it’s important that Americans are aware of the risk,” CDC Director Dr. Robert R. Redfield, said in a press release for the agency’s new report.

The report’s authors looked at national rabies data from 1938 to 2018 and compared that to the number of people who underwent rabies treatment between 2006 to 2014.

From 1960 to 2018, 125 people were diagnosed with rabies, the report said. Eighty-nine of those cases were acquired in the U.S., with 62 of them being transmitted by bats and the rest from racoons, skunks, foxes and native dogs. Cases that weren’t acquired in the U.S. came from dog bites during international travel, the report said.

Rabies is mainly spread through the saliva of an infected animal from a bite or scratch. It’s fatal over 99% of the time unless a person who believes they’ve been exposed to the virus receives a treatment called post-exposure prophylaxis before symptoms begin, according to the CDC.

“The first [symptom] is generally pain or tingling — like a bee sting,” Emily Pieracci, veterinary epidemiologist for the CDC and lead author of the study, told ABC News. “Soon after that, fever develops, followed by confusion [and] agitation. ... People eventually die from going into a coma.”

Symptoms typically take about a month before they start to appear, Pieracci said, adding that anyone who has been bitten or scratched by a bat or other unfamiliar animal should not “wait and see” if symptoms appear before seeking treatment — they should go to a health care provider right away as a precaution.

Bat scratches, Pieracci said, can be less than 1 millimeter wide — smaller than the head of a pencil eraser.

That said, bats live in a diversity of environments, including in urban areas, people’s attics, lodges and campgrounds, Pieracci said. But while they can be found just about everywhere, she said that bats also “play a critical role in our ecosystem and it is important people know that most of the bats in the U.S. are not rabid.”

Pieracci emphasized that you can’t tell whether an animal has rabies just by looking at it. She said that problems arise when people handle bats because they assume they’re not rabid. The same goes for dogs you might see when traveling internationally.

“A lot of people think a rabid dog is salivating, aggressive,” Pieracci said. “But I have seen them shy [and] timid, and [then they] bite when you’re not looking.”

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The Jamestown City Council is being asked for it's support of a proposal to apply for state funding for a new distillery business in the former Marine Midland Bank building....   Jamestown...

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